This chapter discusses the basis for these population estimates, scope, and limitations based on experiences in development of massive global population datasets and usage of these datasets as a basis for sampling design. It presents tools and approaches for using these georeferenced population estimates for complex household survey sampling. The chapter provides a unified resource for understanding current gridded population datasets, their use in survey research, and promising areas of future work toward improved population estimates. It includes an overview of popular gridded population datasets, common methodological frameworks for developing gridded population estimates, and discusses pros and cons for selecting a gridded population dataset from a survey perspective. The chapter focuses on survey methods that use gridded population estimates specifically. It highlights differences between census population estimates and gridded population estimates that may be relevant when planning data collection. The chapter presents a case study of gridded population data and sampling methods in Nigeria.